adpressed: lying flat or close to the body

aestivate: to remain inactive during hot, summer weather

aggregate: to gather in a group

amplexus: the mating embrace of frogs and toads in which the male clasps onto the back of the female while they each release either eggs or sperm into the water

anal plate: the scale that covers the anus

anterior: pertaining to the front portion of an animal

arboreal: describes tree-dwelling behavior

arthropod: animal of the phylum Arthropoda; includes spiders, insects, and crustaceans

boss: swollen, raised area in front of and between the eyes of some frogs and toads

brille: transparent scale covering the eye on snakes; also known as the ocular scale

carapace: upper (top) shell of a turtle or tortoise

caudal: pertaining to the tail region of an animal

cloaca: a duct in amphibians and reptiles that is used for the expulsion of digestive and excretory waste as well as reproductive cells (sperm and eggs)

communal: sharing a particular habitat feature such as a hibernaculum

cranial crests: raised ridges on the heads of some amphibians

crepuscular: active during hours of dawn and dusk

diurnal: active during daylight hours

dorsal: pertaining to the back of an animal

dorsolateral: pertaining to an area between the back and the sides of an animal

endemic: native to a specific area and occurring nowhere else outside of that area

femoral pores: pores on the ventral surface of the thigh of some lizards

fossorial: describes a behavior of living underground

gametes: cells of reproduction; sperm in males and eggs in females

hibernaculum (hibernacula): habitat feature used for hibernation

hibernate: to remain inactive during cold, winter weather

interorbital: between the eyes

keeled: with ridges

labial: pertaining to the lips

larva (larvae): aquatic offspring of frogs, toads, and salamanders

lateral: pertaining to the side of an animal

longitudinal: occurring lengthwise on an animal, from head to tail

loreal: pertaining to the region between the eyes and nostrils

medial: pertaining to the centerline or close to the center of an animal body

metamorphosis: transformation of a larval amphibian into its adult form

middorsal: pertaining to the centerline of the back of an animal

nasal septum: tissue or membrane that divides the internal nose into left and right halves

neotenic: retaining larval characteristics after reaching sexual maturity (also see paedomorphic)

nocturnal: active during nighttime hours

nuchal plate: the median marginal scute at the anterior edge of the carapace in turtles

occipital: region located at the back of the head

ocelli (ocellus): circular or round dark spots

paedomorphic: retaining juvenile or larval features into adulthood (also see neotenic)

parotoid gland: external gland on the neck or shoulder of some amphibians that often secretes toxins as a defense mechanism

plastron: lower (bottom) shell of a turtle or a tortoise

posterior: pertaining to the rear or caudal portion of an animal

postorbital: behind the eyes

reticulated: having a netlike pattern

rostral: pertaining to the snout

saltatory locomotion: leaping or hopping

scalation: describes the pattern and distribution of scales on reptiles

scale rows: longitudinal rows of lateral and dorsal scales extending the length of snakes (and lizards to some extent) from just behind the head to the tip of the tail. Scale rows are normally counted at mid-body by choosing a lateral scale adjacent to the ventral scales and counting in a diagonal fashion until the ventral scales are reached on the opposite side of the body (see Fig. 14).

scutes: flattened scales on turtle and tortoise shells or the large ventral scales on snakes

spermatophore: packet of sperm cells deposited by male salamanders to be collected by females for fertilization of eggs

subcaudal: pertaining to the portion under or on the ventral side of the tail

terrestrial: describes land-dwelling behavior

tubercles: small, rounded, wartlike projections

tuberculate: bearing rounded, wartlike projections (tubercles)

tympanum: external eardrum on some amphibians and reptiles

vent: external opening of the cloaca; also the opening by which the genitalia of reptiles are exposed during reproduction

ventral: pertaining to the belly or underside of an animal

vocal sac: an inflatable pouch on the throat of male frogs and toads

warts: small, rounded protuberances on toads and some frogs